A breif about Uganda and her History

Uganda is what became of a combination/amalgamation of all kingdoms and chiefdoms that there was in the present day Uganda. This term was used by the Europeans who colonized the region, derived from Buganda the then most powerful Kingdom of the region that had dominated others and welcomed Europeans missionaries to come and spread Christianity and education majorly in the kingdom. As widely agreed the drama of human evolution was enacted in the rift valley and plains of east Africa and Uganda has supported hominid life for as long as any other part of East Africa.
This assumption is supported by the discovery of fossils belonging to the semi –bipedal proto-hominid Morotopithecas, thought to have lived about 15million years ago in Moroto district.
Stone- Age implements dating to over one million years ago have been discovered throughout east africa and its highly probable that the earliest of human technologies arose in this region .The oldest stone Age-sites in Uganda are Nsongezi on the kigezi river and Sango Bay on lake Victoria and were occupied between 150,000 and 50,000 years ago. The rock paintings on many sheltered near mbale in eastern Uganda depict strong affinities with Khoisan rock art, suggesting that at one moment occupied most of Uganda, as well as most of east Africa at the beginning of the first millennium AD.

The second human influx reached the lake Victoria hinter land in roughly 200BC and coincided with the spread of Iron age technology in the region and these have been suggested to be ancestors of Bantu speaker who probably occupied most of sub-equatorial Africa by 1500AD.Centralised political systems made an early appearance in Uganda and a number of archeological site in the Mubende and Ntusi districts of central Uganda suggest that Bunyoro-kitara was established long before AD 1500.

The Batembuzi and Bacwezi (1100-1500 AD)
The Batembuzi whose origin is obscure by legend and myth are asserted to have been the first dy-nasty to rule over Bunyoro between 1100 and 1350 AD ,by kinyoro and several other traditions.At Ntusi ample evidence to confirm a highly centralised society existed in this area as early as 11th century. Several local traditions list between 10 to 22 dynatic kings Ruhanga, the king of underground as the founder and Isuza the last batembuzi ruler .

After killing Bukuku, a stand in king, Ndawula ( the uprooter) took over the throne and hence founded the Chwezi dynasty. The chwezi were most probably of of ethiopian and sudan’s emigrants but like their predecessors the batembuzi,they adopted the language and culture the local bantu speakers over whom they assumed rule. Ndahura is culturally credited for having introduced coffee cultivation and Ankole cattle to Uganda.
The Ntusi and Mubende area spotted by all tradition accounts as the center of bunyoro kitara during the Bacwezi era,an assertion proven by the great archaeological evidence, notably the extensive earthworks at bigo byamugenyi and munsa.this suggests that the bacwezi empire covered most of southern uganda and west of nile.
Even when ndawula escaped from his captors in present day northern Tanzania during a raid into their land, he refused to reclaim the throne but rather abdicated in favor of his son Wamala.
Almost all the royal dynasties in the region claim to be of direct or indirect Bacwezi descent cons dering the immense Bacwezi inf luence on modern day Uganda. Wamala simply disappeared, just like his father,it is asserted, thereby reinforcing the claim that the bacwezi were immortal. The Bacwezi remain the focus of several religious cults, and places like Nakayima Tree on mubende Hill.
GEOGRAPHY
Area: 241,040 sq. km. (93,070 sq. mi.); about the size of Oregon.
Cities: Capital–Kampala (2002 pop. 1.2 million). Other cities–Jinja, Gulu, Mbale, Mbarara.
Terrain: 18% inland water and swamp; 12% national parks, forest, and game reserves; 70% forest, woodland, grassland.
Climate: In the northeast, semi-arid–rainfall less than 50 cm. (20 in.); in southwest, rainfall 130 cm. (50 in.) or more. Two dry seasons: Dec.-Feb. and June-July.

PEOPLE AND HISTORY
The Baganda are the largest ethnic group in Uganda and comprise approximately 18% of the population. Individual ethnic groups in the southwest include the Banyankole and Bahima, 10%; the Bakiga, 8%; the Banyarwanda, 6%; the Bunyoro, 3%; and the Batoro, 3%. Residents of the north, largely Nilotic, include the Langi, 6%, and the Acholi, 4%. In the northwest are the Lugbara, 4%, and the Karamojong, 2%, occupy the considerably drier, largely pastoral territory in the northeast. The Basoga, 8%, and the Bagisu, 5%, are among ethnic groups in the east.

Uganda’s population is predominately rural, and its population density highest in the southern regions. Until 1972, Asians constituted the largest nonindigenous ethnic group in Uganda. In that year, the Idi Amin regime expelled 50,000 Asians, who had been engaged in trade, industry, and various professions. In the years since Amin’s overthrow in 1979, Asians have slowly returned and now number around 30,000.

When Arab traders moved inland from their enclaves along the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa and reached the interior of Uganda in the 1830s, they found several African kingdoms with well-developed political institutions dating back several centuries. These traders were followed in the 1860s by British explorers searching for the source of the Nile River. Protestant missionaries entered the country in 1877, followed by Catholic missionaries in 1879.

In 1888, control of the emerging British “sphere of interest” in East Africa was assigned by royal charter to the Imperial British East Africa Company, an arrangement strengthened in 1890 by an Anglo-German agreement confirming British dominance over Kenya and Uganda. In 1894, the Kingdom of Buganda was placed under a formal British protectorate.

Britain granted internal self-government to Uganda in 1961, with the first elections held on March 1, 1961. Benedicto Kiwanuka of the Democratic Party became the first Chief Minister. Uganda maintained its Commonwealth membership. A second round of elections in April 1962 elected members to a new National Assembly. Milton Obote, leader of the majority coalition in the National Assembly, became prime minister and led Uganda to formal independence on October 9, 1962.

In succeeding years, supporters of a centralized state vied with those in favor of a loose federation and a strong role for tribally-based local kingdoms. Political maneuvering climaxed in February 1966, when Prime Minister Milton Obote suspended the constitution, assumed all government powers, and removed the ceremonial president and vice president. In September 1967, a new constitution proclaimed Uganda a republic, gave the president even greater powers, and abolished the traditional kingdoms. On January 25, 1971, Obote’s government was ousted in a military coup led by armed forces commander Idi Amin Dada. Amin declared himself president, dissolved the parliament, and amended the constitution to give himself absolute power.

Idi Amin’s 8-year rule produced economic decline, social disintegration, and massive human rights violations. The Acholi and Langi ethnic groups were particular objects of Amin’s political persecution because they had supported Obote and made up a large part of the army. In 1978, the International Commission of Jurists estimated that more than 100,000 Ugandans had been murdered during Amin’s reign of terror; some authorities place the figure much higher.

In October 1978, Tanzanian armed forces repulsed an incursion of Amin’s troops into Tanzanian territory. The Tanzanian force, backed by Ugandan exiles, waged a war of liberation against Amin’s troops and Libyan soldiers sent to help him. On April 11, 1979, Kampala was captured, and Amin fled with his remaining forces.

After Amin’s removal, the Uganda National Liberation Front formed an interim government with Yusuf Lule as president. This government adopted a ministerial system of administration and created a quasi-parliamentary organ known as the National Consultative Commission (NCC). The NCC and the Lule cabinet reflected widely differing political views. In June 1979, following a dispute over the extent of presidential powers, the NCC replaced Lule with Godfrey Binaisa. In a continuing dispute over the powers of the interim presidency, Binaisa was removed in May 1980. Thereafter, Uganda was ruled by a military commission chaired by Paulo Muwanga. December 1980 elections returned the UPC to power under the leadership of President Obote, with Muwanga serving as vice president. Under Obote, the security forces had one of the world’s worst human rights records. In their efforts to stamp out an insurgency led by Yoweri Museveni’s National Resistance Army (NRA), they laid waste to a substantial section of the country, especially in the Luwero area north of Kampala.

Obote ruled until July 27, 1985, when an army brigade, composed mostly of ethnic Acholi troops and commanded by Lt. Gen. Basilio Olara-Okello, took Kampala and proclaimed a military government. Obote fled to exile in Zambia. The new regime, headed by former defense force commander Gen. Tito Okello (no relation to Lt. Gen. Olara-Okello), opened negotiations with Museveni’s insurgent forces and pledged to improve respect for human rights, end tribal rivalry, and conduct free and fair elections. In the meantime, massive human rights violations continued as the Okello government murdered civilians and ravaged the countryside in order to destroy the NRA’s support.

Negotiations between the Okello government and the NRA were conducted in Nairobi in the fall of 1985, with Kenyan President Daniel Moi seeking a cease-fire and a coalition government in Uganda. Although agreeing in late 1985 to a cease-fire, the NRA continued fighting, seized Kampala in late January 1986, and assumed control of the country, forcing Okello to flee north into Sudan. Museveni’s forces organized a government with Museveni as president and dominated by the political grouping called the National Resistance Movement (NRM or the “Movement”).

A referendum was held in March 2000 on whether Uganda should retain the Movement system, with limited operation of political parties, or adopt multi-party politics. Although 70% of voters endorsed retention of the Movement system, the referendum was widely criticized for low voter turnout and unfair restrictions on Movement opponents. Museveni was reelected to a second five-year term in March 2001. Parliamentary elections were held in June 2001, and more than 50% of contested seats were won by newcomers. Movement supporters nevertheless remained in firm control of the legislative branch. Observers believed that the 2001 presidential and parliamentary elections generally reflected the will of the electorate; however, both were marred by serious irregularities, particularly in the period leading up to the elections, such as restrictions on political party activities, incidents of violence, voter intimidation, and fraud.

A Constitutional Review Commission (CRC) issued a report proposing comprehensive constitutional change in December 2003. The government, however, took issue with many CRC recommendations and made counter-proposals in September 2004. A July 2005 national referendum resulted in the adoption of a multiparty system of government and the subsequent inclusion of opposition parties in elections and government.

In February 2006, the country held its first multiparty general elections since President Museveni came to power in 1986. The election generally reflected the will of the people, although serious irregularities occurred. Ruling NRM candidate President Museveni was declared the winner with 59.3% of the vote, giving him a third term in office following the passage of a controversial amendment in June 2005 to eliminate presidential term limits. Opposition FDC leader Kizza Besigye captured 37.4% of the vote, while the remaining contestants received less than 2% of the vote each, according to official figures from the Electoral Commission.

GOVERNMENT
The 1995 constitution established Uganda as a republic with an executive, legislative, and judicial branch. The constitution provides for an executive president, to be elected every 5 years. President Yoweri Museveni, in power since 1986, was elected in 1996 and reelected in 2001 and 2006. Legislative responsibility is vested in the parliament; legislative elections were last held February 2006. There are currently 102 women representatives in the 332-member parliament. The Ugandan judiciary operates as an independent branch of government and consists of magistrate’s courts, high courts, courts of appeals, and the Supreme Court. Parliament and the judiciary have significant amounts of independence and wield significant power.

Principal Government Officials
President and Commander in Chief–Yoweri Kaguta Museveni
Vice President- Ssekandi Edward Prime Minister-John Patrick Amama Mbabazi
Foreign Minister–Sam Kutesa
Minister of Defense–Dr. Crispus Kiyonga
Ambassador to the United States-His excellence Perezi K.Kamunanwire

Uganda maintains an embassy in the United States at 5909 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011 (tel. 202-726-7100).

POLITICAL CONDITIONS
Since assuming power, Museveni and his government have largely put an end to the human rights abuses of earlier governments, initiated substantial economic liberalization and general press freedom, and instituted economic reforms in accord with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, and donor governments.

The vicious and cult-like Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), which seeks to overthrow the Ugandan Government, had murdered and kidnapped civilians in the north and east since 1986. Although the LRA does not threaten the stability of the government, LRA violence at one time displaced up to 1.8 million people, creating a humanitarian catastrophe, particularly when they were forced into internally displaced persons (IDP) camps for their own protection. The Uganda Peoples Defense Force (UPDF) launched “Operation Iron Fist” against LRA rebels in northern Uganda in 2002 and conducted operations against LRA sanctuaries in southern Sudan with the permission of the Sudanese Government. The Sudanese Government had previously supported the LRA.

In 2005, the Ugandan military pushed the LRA out of northern Uganda. The LRA escaped to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (D.R.C.) and continued to operate there, southern Sudan, and occasionally in Central African Republic. Under military pressure, the LRA requested peace talks. Government of Southern Sudan Vice President Riek Machar mediated a 2-1/2 year peace process which resulted in a Final Peace Agreement (FPA) in April 2008. LRA leader Joseph Kony refused to sign the FPA and continued to commit atrocities against local populations in D.R.C., southern Sudan, and C.A.R. In December 2008, the Governments of Uganda, D.R.C., and southern Sudan launched a joint military operation against the LRA in northeastern D.R.C. A follow-on operation is ongoing.

There have been no LRA attacks in northern Uganda since August 2006. As a result, the majority of the 1.8 million IDPs have returned to or near their homes.

ECONOMY
Uganda’s economy has great potential. Endowed with significant natural resources, including ample fertile land, regular rainfall, and mineral deposits, it appeared poised for rapid economic growth and development at independence. However, chronic political instability and erratic economic management produced a record of persistent economic decline that left Uganda among the world’s poorest and least-developed countries.

Since assuming power in early 1986, Museveni’s government has taken important steps toward economic rehabilitation. The country’s infrastructure–notably its transportation and communications systems that were destroyed by war and neglect–is being rebuilt. Recognizing the need for increased external support, Uganda negotiated a policy framework paper with the IMF and the World Bank in 1987. It subsequently began implementing economic policies designed to restore price stability and sustainable balance of payments, improve capacity utilization, rehabilitate infrastructure, restore producer incentives through proper price policies, and improve resource mobilization and allocation in the public sector. Uganda’s macroeconomic policies are sound and contributed to an 8.6% growth rate in fiscal year 2007-2008, compared to 7% in FY 2006-2007. Inflation ran at 240% in 1987 and 42% in June 1992, and was 5.1% in 2003. It bounced up to 7.7% in 2007 and 12% in 2008 and portions of 2009, well above the government’s annual target average of 5%, as food prices rose.

Investment as a percentage of GDP was 17% in 2006/2007 compared to 15.7% in 2002/2003. Private sector investment, largely financed by private transfers from abroad, was 20% of GDP in 2006/2007. In the same year, gross national savings as a percentage of GDP fell to an estimated 12%, from 13% the previous fiscal year. The Ugandan Government has worked with donor countries to reschedule or cancel substantial portions of the country’s external debts.

Agricultural products supply nearly all of Uganda’s foreign exchange earnings, with coffee (of which Uganda is Africa’s second leading producer) accounting for about 23% and fish 7% of the country’s exports in 2007/2008. Exports of non-traditional products, including apparel, hides, skins, vanilla, vegetables, fruits, cut flowers, and fish are growing, while traditional exports such as cotton, tea, and tobacco continue to be mainstays. Significant discoveries of oil in the Albertine Rift in western Uganda in 2008 pose both a major challenge and a major opportunity for Uganda’s economy and development. As of late 2009, the private sector had invested considerably in the oil sector, but production had not yet begun pending further feasibility studies on the funding and construction of the necessary infrastructure to support the industry.

Most industry is related to agriculture. The industrial sector has been rehabilitated and resumed production of building and construction materials, such as cement, reinforcing rods, corrugated roofing sheets, and paint. Domestically produced consumer goods include plastics, soap, cork, beer, and soft drinks.

Uganda has about 45,000 kilometers (28,000 mi.) of roads, of which 10,000 (6,213 miles) kilometers are main roads and 35,000 kilometers (21,747 miles) are feeder roads. Only 3,000 kilometers (1,864 mi.) are paved, and most roads radiate from Kampala. The country has about 1,350 kilometers (800 mi.) of rail lines, but most of it is not currently in use. A railroad originating at Mombasa on the Indian Ocean connects with Tororo, where it branches westward to Jinja, Kampala, and Kasese and northward to Mbale, Soroti, Lira, Gulu, and Pakwach. Uganda’s important road and rail links to Mombasa serve its transport needs and also those of its neighbors–Rwanda, Burundi, and parts of Congo and Sudan. An international airport is at Entebbe on the shore of Lake Victoria, some 32 kilometers (20 mi.) south of Kampala.

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